Emerson Integrity Centre® is a leading eCentre that provides customized training in ethics, integrity, compliance, accountability, transparency, stewardship and corruption prevention.

Corruption notes

These sample notes have been extracted from the Ethics, Integrity, Compliance and Corruption prevention Training program. Get all the notes and full training here.

Meaning of corruption

  1. Corruption is the misuse of entrusted power for personal gain.
  2. Corruption is the latent decay in ethical values and morality of individuals and society.
  3. Corruption is the act of doing something with an intent to give some advantage inconsistent with official duty and the right of others.

Features of corruption

  1. Corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.
  2. Corruption is an unethical activity.
  3. Corruption is a criminal activity.

Categories of corruption

  1. Grand corruption: occurs at the highest levels of government where policies and rules are formulated in the first place.
  2. Petty corruption: takes place at the lowest level of implementation of policies.
  3. Political corruption: takes place at the political institutions and involves politicians and senior public office holders.

Corruption offenses

  1. Bribery:  is the bestowing of a benefit to unduly influence an action or decision.
  2. Fraud: occurs when a person cheats, manipulates or distorts information and facts.
  3. Money laundering: is the illegal process of concealing the origins of money obtained illegally by passing it through a complex sequence of transactions that gives the false impression that the money has come from a legal source.

Causes of corruption

  1. Personal greed:  greed and lack of contentment are the root of all corruption in mind.
  2. Lack of sense of service: lack of sense of service limits interpersonal capabilities such as truthfulness, reasonableness, humility and commitment to talk about corruption.
  3. Lack of courage: lack of courage to denounce and report corrupt behavior and situations is conducive to corruption.

Vulnerable sectors

  1. Public procurement:  procurement corruption occurs when a public official secures the benefits which rightly belong to the public by bypassing the formal requirements for the awarding of these privileges.
  2. Defense: huge budgets and lucrative contracts combined with a lack of transparency due to strategic secrecy, the defense sector poses unique corruption risks.
  3. Private sector: corruption in private sector is mostly associated with payment of bribes, unlawful inducements to officials, and acceptance of illegal commissions or kickbacks.

Effects of corruption

  1. Cost of doing business: tend to view bribes as a cost of doing business and therefore pass the extra cost onto consumers who suffer from high prices.
  2. Government resources: as a result of corruption, investments are not allocated to sectors and programs which present the best value for money or where needs are highest, but to those which offer the best prospects for personal enrichment.
  3. Underground economy: corruption and shadow economy are twins that have in common circumvention of regulations, giving rise to unethical economic activities.

Prevention of corruption

  1. Individual measures: acting honestly and never participate in any deceptive activity.
  2. Businesses and corporations: establishing internal corruption control and reporting systems.
  3. Citizen empowerment: strengthening citizens’ demand to detect and prevent corruption.

National anticorruption bodies

  1. Anticorruption commissions: anticorruption Commissions investigate and recommend the prosecution of any acts of corruption, economic crime, unethical conduct or violation of codes of ethics or other matter prescribed in the law.
  2. Executive: mobilizes resources used to fight corruption.
  3. Legislature: enacts anticorruption laws.

International anticorruption bodies

  1. Inter-American Convention Against Corruption: promotes, facilitates and supports international cooperation and technical assistance in the prevention of and fight against corruption, including in asset recovery.
  2. United Nations Convention Against Corruption: mandates its member countries to adopt coordinated policies that prevent corruption and designate a ‘body or bodies’ to coordinate and oversee their implementation.
  3. Council of Europe Convention on Combating Corruption: enhances ethics, integrity, and transparency in the private sector through the adoption of accounting and auditing standards and the establishment of penalties at civil, administrative and criminal levels.

Meaning of work ethics

  1. Work ethics is a set of basic principles and standards which guide the behaviors and actions of personnel in public and private institutions.
  2. Work ethics is characterized by integrity, accountability, transparency and stewardship.
  3. Integrity is the quality of being honest and having strong moral standards.
  4. Accountability is the quality of being honest and having strong moral is an obligation or willingness to present an account and answer for the execution of responsibilities to those who entrusted those responsibilities.
  5. Transparency is the quality of being easy to understand, open, frank and honest in all communications, transactions, decisions and operations.
  6. Stewardship is the conservation of resources and funds against misuse.

Get in touch

For more anticorruption courses and materials, contact us through




Share the training

FacebookWhatsapp telegramlinkedintwitter